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为大家讲述玩具的发展史


供人(ren)(ren)们尤(you)其是儿童玩(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)乐和(he)游戏的(de)(de)产(chan)(chan)品(pin)。距(ju)今(jin)约(yue)(yue)5000多(duo)年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)的(de)(de)古埃及文物中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)已有(you)(you)(you)粘(zhan)土(tu)、木材、兽骨(gu)和(he)象牙等材料(liao)制成(cheng)的(de)(de)玩(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)偶(ou)(ou),儿童墓葬(zang)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)有(you)(you)(you)小(xiao)型饮具(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)和(he)生(sheng)活用具(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)。距(ju)今(jin)约(yue)(yue)3000年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)的(de)(de)波斯文物中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)发(fa)现(xian)有(you)(you)(you)下(xia)设圆轮的(de)(de)拖拉(la)玩(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)具(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)。古希(xi)腊有(you)(you)(you)用线绳起(qi)动(dong)的(de)(de)发(fa)声陀螺和(he)动(dong)物形象的(de)(de)玩(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)具(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)。古罗马陵(ling)墓中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)出土(tu)了(le)四肢活动(dong)的(de)(de)牙雕人(ren)(ren)像。18世(shi)纪德(de)国(guo)(guo)纽(niu)伦(lun)堡成(cheng)为欧(ou)洲玩(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)具(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心。玩(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)偶(ou)(ou)采用模印(yin)工艺,体(ti)内(nei)装置机械部(bu)件,能表(biao)演啼哭(ku)、走路等动(dong)作(zuo)。还生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)了(le)音乐玩(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)具(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)和(he)发(fa)条玩(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)具(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)等。19世(shi)纪科(ke)学(xue)技术新成(cheng)就应用于(yu)玩(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)具(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)设计和(he)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan),促使玩(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)具(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)的(de)(de)发(fa)展,出现(xian)活动(dong)画(hua)、西洋镜、幻灯等光学(xue)玩(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)具(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)。1878年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)美(mei)(mei)国(guo)(guo)科(ke)学(xue)家(jia)T.A.爱迪(di)生(sheng)采用留声机制成(cheng)会(hui)说(shuo)话、唱歌(ge)的(de)(de)玩(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)偶(ou)(ou)。19世(shi)纪90年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)代(dai),美(mei)(mei)国(guo)(guo)相继生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)了(le)电动(dong)小(xiao)风扇和(he)有(you)(you)(you)轨电动(dong)小(xiao)火车(che)。中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)玩(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)具(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)也(ye)有(you)(you)(you)悠久的(de)(de)历史。距(ju)今(jin)约(yue)(yue)5500年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)的(de)(de)山东宁阳(yang)大汶口(kou)遗址(zhi)发(fa)现(xian)有(you)(you)(you)小(xiao)型陶猪。距(ju)今(jin)约(yue)(yue)3800年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)的(de)(de)齐家(jia)文化(hua)遗物中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)也(ye)有(you)(you)(you)陶制玩(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)具(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)和(he)响铃。风筝(zheng)和(he)球类游戏也(ye)有(you)(you)(you)2000年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)以(yi)上的(de)(de)历史。空竹(zhu)、风车(che)、滚环、七巧板、九连(lian)环等成(cheng)为中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)传(chuan)统的(de)(de)民间玩(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)具(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju),20世(shi)纪以(yi)后(hou),玩(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)具(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)制造业(ye)成(cheng)为重要(yao)的(de)(de)工业(ye)。30年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)代(dai)德(de)国(guo)(guo)玩(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)具(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)和(he)出口(kou)居(ju)世(shi)界首(shou)位。40年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)代(dai)美(mei)(mei)国(guo)(guo)玩(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)具(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)迅速(su)发(fa)展,生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)、消(xiao)费(fei)和(he)进口(kou)跃居(ju)世(shi)界之冠(guan)。50年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)代(dai)日本玩(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)具(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)工业(ye)崛起(qi),出口(kou)额赶上德(de)国(guo)(guo)。50年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)代(dai)末中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)玩(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)具(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)工业(ye)形成(cheng),以(yi)北京、上海(hai)为主(zhu)要(yao)产(chan)(chan)区(qu)。玩(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)具(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)品(pin)种达7000多(duo)种。60年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)代(dai)香(xiang)港玩(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)具(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)工业(ye)兴起(qi),80年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)代(dai)以(yi)后(hou)台湾玩(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)(wan)具(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)工业(ye)有(you)(you)(you)很大的(de)(de)发(fa)展。

随着内(nei)(nei)销市场的(de)不(bu)断完善和(he)规范,加上国家在政策上对玩具(ju)、动漫、游戏(xi)等“创意产业(ye)”的(de)倾斜和(he)大力(li)扶持,国内(nei)(nei)的(de)玩具(ju)产业(ye)将进入一个(ge)前所未有的(de)黄(huang)金期,发(fa)展速度加快,行业(ye)效(xiao)益提(ti)升。

2011年(nian)末,我国(guo)玩具制造(zao)工业(ye)(ye)企(qi)业(ye)(ye)达(da)1172家,行业(ye)(ye)总资产达(da)664.26亿(yi)元,同比(bi)增长18.29%。相关(guan)数(shu)据显示:2011年(nian),我国(guo)规模以上玩具制造(zao)工业(ye)(ye)企(qi)业(ye)(ye)实现主营业(ye)(ye)务收入达(da)1452.77亿(yi)元,同比(bi)增长18.23%;实现利润总额达(da)66.48亿(yi)元,同比(bi)增长39.93%。